The Kentucky Academic Standards for Science are written as a set of performance expectations that are assessable statements of what students should know and be able to do. An underlying assumption of these standards is that all students should be held accountable for demonstrating their achievement of all performance expectations. A coherent and complete view of what students should be able to do comes when the performance expectations are viewed in tandem with the contents of the foundation boxes that lie just below the performance expectations. These three boxes include the practices, core disciplinary ideas, and crosscutting concepts, derived from the National Research Council’s Framework for K12 Science Education that was used to construct this set of performance expectations.
Three-Dimensional Learning shifts the focus of the science classroom to environments where students use disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts with scientific practices to explore, examine, and explain how and why phenomena occur and to design solutions to problems.
The focus is on making sense of science instead of memorizing a set of facts.
The three dimensions of NGSS are the Science and Engineering Practices, the Crosscutting Concepts, and the Disciplinary Core Ideas.
1. Science and Engineering Practices
What Scientists and Students do in Science
The science and Engineering Practices describe what scientists do to investigate phenomena and what engineers do to design solutions to problems. Students use the science and engineering practices to practice their skills of inquiry as they explore the natural world. Students engage in practices to build, deepen and apply their knowledge of disciplinary core ideas and crosscutting concepts.
Engaging in the practices of science helps students understand how scientific knowledge develops. Students will learn to investigate, model, and explain their world.
The actual doing of science or engineering (the practices) can pique students’ curiosity and capture their interest and motivate their continued study.
Although engineering design is similar to scientific inquiry, there are significant differences. For example, scientific inquiry involves the formulation of a question that can be answered through investigation, while engineering design involves the formulation of a problem that can be solved through design. Strengthening the engineering aspects of the Next Generation Science Standards will clarify for students the relevance of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (the four STEM fields) to everyday life.
The eight science and engineering practices are:
- Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for engineering)
- Developing and using models
- Planning and carrying out investigations
- Analyzing and interpreting data
- Using math and computational thinking
- Constructing an explanation (for science) and designing a solution (for engineering)
- Engaging in an argument stemming from evidence
- Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information
2. Crosscutting Concepts
Crosscutting Concepts help students explore connections across the four domains of science, including Physical Science, Life Science, Earth and Space Science, and Engineering Design. Crosscutting concepts have application across all domains of science. As such, they are a way of linking the different domains of science.
The crosscutting concepts give the students a lens that shows them how to think about the problem at hand. The crosscutting concepts also let the teacher know what types of questions to ask.
There are 7 crosscutting concepts that the National Research Council has outlined, which appear in the Next Generation Science Standards. They are:
- Cause and effect
- Scale, proportion, and quantity
- Systems and system models
- Energy and matter: Flows, cycles, and conservation
- Structure and function
- Stability and change
3. Disciplinary Core Ideas
The Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) are the key ideas in science that students must learn at each level. They build on one another at each grade level. There are disciplinary core ideas in each domain of science: Physical Science, Life Science, Earth and Space Science, and Engineering.
- Have broad importance across multiple sciences or engineering disciplines or be a key organizing concept of a single discipline;
- Provide a key tool for understanding or investigating more complex ideas and solving problems;
- Relate to the interests and life experiences of students or be connected to societal or personal concerns that require scientific or technological knowledge;
- Be teachable and learnable over multiple grades at increasing levels of depth and sophistication.
Another aspect of the Next Generation Science Standards is the use of Phenomena. Phenomena-based science encourages students to ask questions, discover connections, and design models to make sense of what they observe. Students examine a phenomenon and then ask questions, collaborate with partners, and design models.
Prior standards documents listed what students should “know” or “understand.” These ideas translate into performances that can be assessed. Because each standard states what students will do rather than what they will know, it is clear that these are active standards that can be assessed.
A storyline is a coherent sequence of lessons, in which each step is driven by students’ questions that arise from their interactions with phenomena. A student’s goal should always be to explain a phenomenon or solve a problem. At each step, students make progress on the classroom’s questions through science and engineering practices to figure out a piece of a science idea. Each piece they figure out adds to the developing explanation, model, or designing a solution. Each step may also generate questions that lead to the next step in the storyline. Together, what students figure out helps explain the unit’s phenomena or solve the problems they have identified. A storyline provides a coherent path toward building disciplinary core ideas and crosscutting concepts, piece by piece, anchored in students’ own questions. For simplicity, you can think of storylines as a unit plan. Learning is connected and built on previous learning. The episodes within a storyline you can think of as individual lessons or inquiry activities.
The NGSS committee believes that a strong foundation in science prepares students for living in today’s technologically advanced world, regardless of whether they pursue careers in science. How do we communicate ideas to each other? How do we present information or investigate a problem? The hope is that this new NGSS definition of standards will encourage students towards STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) majors in college and eventually pursue more STEM careers. However, even if they don’t, the principles of the NGSS standards are meant to be helpful in the workplace and, in essence, the demands of day-to-day life.
Kentucky NGSS Resources
Are you looking for science resources that are designed by someone who understands the NGSS standards? I have over 30 years of teaching experience in elementary, middle school, and universities. For the last 20 years, I have worked in higher education, teaching pre-service teachers in science methods courses. Now I use my extensive knowledge of NGSS to create a curriculum for K-8th grade teachers. My resources use phenomena to engage students. My resources are aligned with the standards and use the science and engineering practices and crosscutting concepts to engage students in the disciplinary core ideas.
Here are just a few of the resources I have for NGSS:
- Animals and Their Babies First Grade NGSS 1-LS1-1 and 1-LS1-2
- States of Matter: Stability and Change 2nd Grade
- SPEED, ENERGY, MOTION, & COLLIDING OBJECTS 4TH GRADE NGSS 4-PS3-1 and 4-PS3-3
- Third Grade Balanced and Unbalanced Forces NGSS 3-PS2-1
- 5TH GRADE WATER DISTRIBUTION COMPLETE UNIT NGSS 5-ESS2-2
- THERMAL ENERGY AND PARTICLE MOTION NGSS MS PS1-4
TeachingScience Kentucky NGSS FAQ
|What is NGSS?||Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) is a state-led effort to support all students in having a solid K-12 science education.|
|Where are TeachingScience NGSS resources available?||You can purchase my standards-aligned resources here on TeachingScience.us or on my TeachersPayTeachers store: Teaching Science with Lynda.|
|What grades do your NGSS science resources cover?||I make science materials to help K-8th grade teachers.|
|Including Kentucky, how many other states are following NGSS?||As of now, 20 states have adopted the Next Generation Science Standards.|
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